This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Public Art Dialogue on 17 May 2022, available at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21502552.2021.2019414
I am pleased to announce that I have been published in the journal, Public Art Dialogue!
My essay, “Elvira Leite and the Art of Playful Pedagogy in the Streets,” is included in Volume 12, 2022 – Issue 1: Public Art and Play: A Serious Piece of Nonsense. The essay describes the collaboration between Elvira Leite and the youth of Porto, Portugal, in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution. Through pedagogical methods driven by the children’s critical observations and creativity, Leite prompted the children to envision the type of city they desired. The results were a combination of playful and political imagery that combined the children’s hopes and dreams with pragmatic resources and safe spaces for them to express their childlike nature.
Elvira Leite and the Art of Playful Pedagogy in the Streets
This essay focuses on the disciplinary intersections and social and emotional ramifications of play, artmaking, and education within public spaces. The term “playful pedagogy” is derived from an educational philosophy and methodology that posits how children learn and develop lifelong skills and mechanisms by engaging in both structured and free play. Play is an activity, experience, and a mindset that can be applied within a variety of academic subjects and social interactions.¹ Playful learning has been defined by characteristics that are joyful, meaningful, actively engaging, iterative, and socially interactive.² While these attributes are common to general human nature, they are not always experienced similarly. Therefore, playful learning requires subjectivity, flexibility, and praxis.³ All of these behaviors and responses are studio habits of mind that the arts teach. Art educator, Elliot W. Eisner, noted that art teaches “flexible purposing,” which is the ability to revise original ideas as-needed; and “resistance to closure,” which means keeping an open mind throughout all stages of the artmaking process.⁴
One particular case study, which demonstrates a flexible and open-minded approach to learning via play, was an early childhood arts education endeavor in Porto, Portugal, during the late 1970s, under the guidance of an artist and educator named Elvira Leite. This initiative utilized a variety of easily sourced materials to create art within the city’s public settings, and was driven by the children’s visions for a better quality of life. Not only did Leite’s supportive framework benefit the children’s creativity and criticality, but it enabled them to be educators and artists in their own right.
Conversations with Kids
In 1977, Elvira Leite had a conversation with children from Porto’s Pena Ventosa community in Bairro da Sé. Leite asked the children to think about what they wanted to create that would reflect their individual and collective identities as the youth of a city in the midst of a political and social revolution. The children responded that they wanted to make posters and graphics like the ones their parents designed for the ongoing large-scale public protests for better living and working conditions. The next prompt that Leite gave the children was to think about what their posters would say, and they responded with a strong desire to have areas where they could congregate, socialize, and play.⁵ In one example, “Queremos uma sala para trabalhar” (we want a room to work), was boldly written above a symbolic painting of a house.
The children’s answers were in line with the overall intergenerational yearning for better living conditions and solutions to quality of life issues. After all, the fact that during the 1970s, nearly a quarter of the Portuguese population lived in unstable conditions was hard to ignore.⁶ However, because they were kids, their answers also reflected their desire for space within the city where they could experience and express their childlike nature.
Leite was among the many activists who participated in socially engaged initiatives such as public education, affordable housing, and placemaking. She was born in 1936 and raised in the city of Porto. She attended the Escola Superior de Belas Artes do Porto, graduating with a degree in painting in 1964. The following year, she was one of the Portuguese artists selected for the Eighth São Paulo Biennial. In 1968, Leite earned the National Prize for painting. She was on her way to a very established career as a professional artist, but it was teaching that called to her the most. Her notable career in education includes teaching high school, publishing materials to support other educators and artists, and serving as a UNESCO educational consultant. She even designed and produced educational toys that were used for manipulative play in schools.⁷
From 1976 onward, Leite specifically focused her artistic skills towards providing art-centered education to individuals of all ages. She was especially concerned about the children who she witnessed actively looking for safe spaces to congregate. Due to the precarious housing conditions, children were often left to their own devices and would roam the streets. However, as Leite observed, these children were not aimlessly loitering around. They would spend their time creating and playing games that reflected the reality of the world that they experienced. The street was their playground, their stage, and their sanctuary. In addition to the traditional recreational activities of card games, jump rope, and hopscotch, the children enacted serious roles which reflected the turmoil that they witnessed throughout their neighborhood. When asked if they had any particular hopes and dreams, the children told Leite that “they did not have any, only nightmares.”⁸ The impetus and means to develop safe and empowering settings for intergenerational use expanded as a result of the 1974 Carnation Revolution and the SAAL Bouça (Serviço Ambulatório de Apoio Local/Local Support Ambulatory Service) social housing project (1974-76).
Social Reforms and Their Effects on Art Education
After the revolution, progressive organizers, like Leite, sought to reverse the policies and ideologies of a forty-eight year long dictatorship (starting with the Ditadura Nacional from 1926 – 1933 and ending with the Estado Novo from 1933-1974) that resulted in widespread education inequity, poverty, and unsafe housing and living conditions. SAAL was the impetus of a communal demand for better infrastructure, greater social autonomy, and economic stability.
SAAL and other public housing developments were largely influential collaborations between an array of individuals who lived in the community and architects. In SAAL Bouça’s case, the project was spearheaded by the influential Portuguese architect, Álvaro Siza. The design featured parallel rows of modern looking units, with a large open courtyard in the middle. This layout would enhance social interaction and connectivity to the city, while offering residents privacy and safe spaces to socialize.⁹ The unusual make-up of the planning committees meant that the future residents would all have a say in how their public housing was designed.¹⁰ The benefit of projects like SAAL Bouça was that it inspired the citizens of Porto to organize effectively in a progression towards a more universal and democratic system of housing, which prioritized people over profits.¹¹ Unfortunately, SAAL Bouça disbanded in 1976 before it could be completed.
In light of the SAAL Bouça project, Porto’s urban ecosystem became the setting for sociopolitical activities. Protests, rallies, and panel discussions all focused on ideas to make communities more inclusive and equitable. This principle was also salient to the younger generations who, through Leite’s instructional scaffolding, made moving works of art by utilizing the pavement, walls, and found materials of their city. Leite’s direction enabled the young artists to forge spaces within their neighborhood that were unique to their individual and collective interests and inquiries. She realized that when children learn via free play with minimal adult intervention, their explorations, discoveries, and insights inspire transformative social change. In a more recent interview, she explained that, “My political activism was dedicated to the struggle for a good education for all: an open education, welcoming, attentive to differences, creative, democratic, organized around projects facilitating interdisciplinary work. The priority then was to solve problems at hand. This was the time both to dream and to live realities and situations of urgency.”¹²
In order to achieve a public educational framework that would be equitable and accessible to all, Leite’s classroom was transferred to the streets. The curriculum she manifested is in line with many of the leading methodologies of contemporary progressive education; most notably, social constructivism, where educators and students alike are given the agency and empowerment to co-create and solve problems that address tangible common issues. Leading advocates for this form of pedagogy include Brazilian teacher and philosopher, Paulo Freire, whose publication, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, is a major manifesto and resource in support of decolonialized and democratized curricula. A key moment in a liberated education is when students and educators collaboratively break free from the “banking model” of teaching and learning. In the banking model, students are perceived as tabula rasas, empty vessels that need to be filled with the pedantic opinions of their educators. This method is especially popular within societies that implicitly and explicitly seek to diminish critical thought and socially engaged action, and uphold racial, cultural, economic, and gender biases. Indoctrination throughout cultural and educational institutions was a common practice of Portugal’s authoritative Estado Novo regime (see Lopes Borges 2017 and Gomes Ferreira and González García 2021, for more information and analysis of the censorship and indoctrination throughout the Estado Novo era).¹³ ¹⁴
To transcend this stifling and oppressive form of education, Freire proposed a “Problem-Posing Model,” a pedagogical methodology that supports critical thinking through dialogue, and an interchangeable transfer of knowledge between teachers and students. He stated, “No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors. The oppressed must be their own example in the struggle for their redemption.”¹⁵
The philosophy within Pedagogy of the Oppressed was eloquently visualized and enacted in the streets of Porto in 1977. The youth of Pena Ventosa understood the major societal concepts that affected their community, and instead of influencing their perspectives, Leite stood back and respected their agency as sophisticated individuals. The resulting artistic output combined the seriousness of social activism with the playful charm that is prevalent in children’s art. Leite and the children collaborated to create a form of public art and public education that encompassed several genres and utilized a plethora of processes, such as drawing, puppetry, performance, installation, and sculpture. Play was the underlying component of the curriculum. Through materials based explorations and social interactions, the children discovered ways to communicate and advocate for themselves, their families, and their community at large. The work of the children offers an upbeat and fresh perspective of social protest, signifying how younger generations have the ability to foster transformative change by creatively organizing themselves in the public sphere and developing an insightful visual vocabulary via their playful interactions with their peers and their urban environment.
Aesthetic playful learning is a concept that has been around for centuries. Friedrich Fröbel’s advent of Kindergarten during the early nineteenth century is rooted in art and architectural values and principles. Fröbel’s goal in establishing an early childhood educational curriculum, was to educate the whole child through mindful and tangible activities. Fröbel was influenced by Swiss educational reformer Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, whose approach to “Learning by head, hand, and heart,” led to a sweeping modernization of the educational system in Switzerland. Pestalozzi is significant as a precursor to early childhood art education, because his pedagogical methods underscore the importance that drawing has on a child’s development. Like his mentor, Fröbel believed in a strong social, emotional, and embodied approach to educating children. His methodology incorporated Pestalozzi’s idea of teaching to the whole child, which means that every facet of a child’s life has a vital impact on the development of their personality, identity, and cognition. He took Pestalozzi’s aesthetic educational philosophy further by introducing three-dimensional objects, which utilize art and design as an active mode for interacting with the world.¹⁶
Artful and Playful Learning in Porto
Playful learning with materials is an essential way for children to build skills and cognition that can translate into tangible critical thinking and action.¹⁷ When given open-ended prompts that allow for them to be considerate of their time and place, children express a great deal of sophistication and vision that are sometimes only thought of as being present in adult art.¹⁸ This is evidenced in Leite’s interactions with the children of Porto, which built upon the lineage of pedagogical play. The children designed and presented their visions for a community they hoped to see.
While the context of the artwork was entirely left to the children’s devices, Leite provided them with coaching and encouragement through different phases of artmaking. The first part of the process was drawing. The drawing process was both an exercise to build the children’s confidence and to brainstorm ideas. The initial marks of creation were made directly onto the city’s pavement with chalk. Almost every possible tangible surface was occupied with the children’s drawings: walls, stairs, alleys, and thoroughfares were all ample canvases for scribbles, schematic designs, portraits, and narrative scenes. Three dimensional installations were realized by arranging readymade objects like fabric, rocks, bottle caps, and toys, in the cracks between walls and on steps and platforms. Everything was economical and environmentally conscious. Materials, like paints, for when the children created works on paper, were both handmade and crowdsourced from the community. Subjects varied, but in general, as Leite described, “The older-kids made signs for the demonstrations that were happening; others painted landscapes, houses and more houses, rooms, walls, skies, strange things, it was a true explosion of creativity.”¹⁹
The puppet making process was perhaps the most blatantly political activity. Prior to creating the puppets, scripts, and music for the performances, Leite and the children had political discussions. Through these dialogues, they identified critical issues and creative ways to present these issues. In conclusion, they performed three original plays that combined fantasy and whimsy with significant topics of cultural relevance: Little Red Riding Hood from Sé, using the fairy tale as a basis to critique chauvinism within the community; The Noises of Pena Ventosa, about disruptive altercations in the neighborhood; and The Codfish Queue, about social problems due to lack of food justice and sovereignty. These plays were satirical in nature, and unabashedly called the adult population out on their grotesque behavior. “The words were very critical, and the adults learned from what they saw.”²⁰
The Soapbox Races lightened the mood, while still offering the children a skill-building activity and platform to communicate to the public. They completely took over the streets with miniature race cars that were designed using salvaged materials from the junkyards and decorated to reflect their own interests and imaginations.
The final portion of the artful collaboration was kite-building. Using locally sourced materials, the children created paper kites. They jotted down wishes on pieces of paper, which were affixed to the tails of each kite, and released into the wind; an interactive art experience that predates Yoko Ono’s renowned Wish Tree initiative. While this concluding activity was poetic and playful, the overall project combined symbolic and pragmatic gestures that were a contributing factor to civic education and other socially engaged participation. Each hands-on and dialectic process within the complete artistic experience shaped the younger generation’s views on citizenship and politics (see Azevedo and Menezes 2008 for a detailed description and analysis of the educational frameworks within Portuguese society after the Carnation Revolution).²¹ ²²
Current Events and Interrelated Examples from Contemporary Art
In light of the ongoing history of social protest and the utilization of urban landscapes in cities throughout the world as places for action, Leite’s work with children is an important reference. Her contributions to education and public art have been the subject of recent scholarship by Lucía Almeida Matos and Susana Lourenço Marques. The Portuguese-based curators organized exhibitions on the Pena Ventosa project in both Porto and New York City. The first time that Leite’s work was presented to an audience in the United States was during the Spring of 2019 at Baruch College’s Mishkin Gallery. Leite’s archival photographs of adults and children coalescing in protest throughout the streets draw many parallels to current events. More recent local, regional, and international demonstrations, such as the Tahrir Square demonstrations, Occupy Wall Street,²³ the Women’s March, and the student-initiated March for Our Lives, have included youth participation; although only the March for Our Lives initiative was student-centered.
An enduring takeaway from Pena Ventosa, which applies to our current social and cultural environment, is that it is essential to advocate for public spaces to remain open and accessible to the community for mixed use purposes. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, some localities, such as the City of New York, designated specific streets for outdoor dining, entertainment, and general pedestrian use; free of the typical traffic and bustle of vehicles that the city is accustomed to. Aptly called “Open Streets,” the program supports artists and audiences by giving them a safe setting to interact with one another. To further help with the pandemic recovery effort, the city also employed the City Artist Corps initiative that enables artists to create works of art that have relevance to diverse local populations. Part of this program is an educational initiative, called Summer Rising Mural and Performing Arts Partnerships where artists are partnered with students in order to create murals and develop public performances. COVID-19 has also highlighted the need for children, who have been quarantined at home and in virtual classrooms, to engage in unstructured play. Open street campaigns can include both raw and readymade materials for children that would promote their own guided play and creativity, much like how the kids of Porto found inspiration by mining their neighborhood streets for art supplies and narrative content.
Taking more common activities outdoors and utilizing public spaces for the making and appreciation of art should be ingrained in our everyday lives. When public art is both an aesthetic process and a joyful experience, it positively serves our collective well being. In public, the role of the arts is holistic and informative. It has been noted that viewing art is a good source for reducing stress and anxiety and understanding other people’s experiences. This is why medical professionals and other individuals with high risk and high demand careers are turning to the arts; both as catharsis for their own work related trauma and to help them become more attuned to the emotions of their patients.²⁴
As of late, public art has honored healthcare workers for their invaluable services to help diminish the toll of the coronavirus. The sculpture, ThAnK YoU (2020), by Beñat Iglesias López and his four-year-old son Teo Iglesias-Toda, is an example of an intergenerational collaboration that was driven by the younger artist’s yearning to make a difference in his community by raising awareness about a serious issue while employing a playful aesthetic. The concept of the sculpture manifested through play. Iglesias López explained that “While playing superheroes at the park, he wanted to fight the coronavirus but couldn’t quite figure out how, nor could he put a face to it, so the whole thing seemed a bit abstract for him.”²⁵ Through inquisitive prompts from his father, Teo made the association between the selfless work of healthcare professionals and the definition of a superhero. Considering medical workers to be real life superheroes, the sculpture depicts a young boy (perhaps a stand-in for Teo himself) wearing a Spider Man eye mask, a blue surgical facemask, and a cape, while holding a hand painted sign that says “thank you.” The work of art was temporarily placed on a bench on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, in front of Central Park and across the street from Mount Sinai Hospital, where first responders and hospital staff encountered it daily. The installation of the sculpture, in between Central Park and the hospital, symbolically represented a microcosm of public and civic life in New York City. Its highly accessible location within a widely utilized area for recreation and healthcare united the work’s playful impetus and serious message.
The pedagogical zeitgeist throughout the streets of Porto can certainly be seen in other public facing artworks made within urban settings within the last two decades. Some examples include Joan Jonas’ Lunar Rabbit (2011) and Andrea Mastrovito’s Kickstarting (2014). Jonas and her collaborators, students from New York City’s Clinton School for Writers and Artists, developed the concept for the Lunar Rabbit by discussing the symbolic relevance of the moon within certain cultures. They created drawings and papier-mâché sculptures inspired by the myths of the lunar rabbit (markings on the moon that several cultures perceive as a rabbit). These traditional forms of art were incorporated into a whimsical performance carried out in a wooded area alongside the Hudson River.
Mastrovito worked with students at Saint Frances Cabrini School and the Youth Center of the Parish in Bushwick, Brooklyn. He asked the children to brainstorm a list of hopes, dreams, memories, and specific contemporary experiences that were significant to them. Next, Mastrovito asked the children to visualize the elements from their list through a drawing exercise. Mastrovito then interpreted the children’s list and drawings into life-sized stencils, which were applied to the school’s courtyard walls. The stencils were then painted via the playful act of the children kicking soccer balls (coated in tempera powder) into the walls.
Jonas, Mastrovito, and Leite’s work are similar in that they resulted in public artwork reliant on the children’s input, creativity, and organization. The artists took on the role of a coach, motivating students with creative prompts and providing skill building techniques as needed. Each project also made replete use of unique characteristics within the physical and natural environment. The access to open spaces like parks, schoolyards, and plazas, made it possible to work on a large and open-ended scale. Although subjective play was the impetus for action in each case, the children, both consciously and through trial and error, came to vital conclusions and serious insights because of the framework and goal oriented structure of playful learning. As Lucía Almeida Matos explains in her introduction to the exhibition catalogue for Pedagogy of the Streets Porto 1977, there was a confluence of unfettered play and game play within the creative work of Leite and the youth of Pena Ventosa. The definitions of each are important to understand within the context of their multifaceted project. In games, there are rules, which define outcomes (i.e. scoring points by capturing the other team’s flag), but in their case, they did not follow a set of predefined rules. Rather, rules and objectives became clear as they were “co-created by the ‘players’ in interaction, and most of the ‘rules’ arise in the process of acquiring the skills needed to achieve the desired goal.”²⁶ Developing skills and applying logical thought is the crux of the motivation behind modern day education as well as the professional workplace and civic life. It is ample proof that play, while clearly fun and largely unrestricted, leads to serious and tangible results.
On the contrary, the conceptual video artwork No Room to Play (2019), by Mexican artist, Minerva Cuevas provides an ominous warning for what can happen when children are deprived of play spaces. The dystopian scene that Cuevas projects through editing footage of abandoned and neglected public playgrounds, is a grave signifier of a society that ignores the value of play and creativity. The corporatization of public space is one determining factor in the gloomy environments Cuevas presents as becoming defunct. The transition from truly public to privately owned public space in cities also ensures that it becomes more difficult for groups to come together and fill the streets in protest (see Garrett 2015 for an overview on privately owned public space and its impacts on civic and social life within cities).²⁷ The loss of communal space for leisure and socialization further highlights what Leite and the children of Porto did as a revolutionary act and the need for their work to be an enduring model for public art, public recreation, and public education.
A Model for Future Artists and Educators
The Pena Ventosa project may seem like an atypical form of public art. Afterall, the actual art objects took a backseat to the artistic process and reflection. The only remaining visual documentation of the project comes from Leite’s photographs. However, it is a model for the democracy that public art and pedagogy can and should inspire. This work was done prior to the rise of the social practice movement, but it falls in line with a lot of the current issues that artists and educators are seeking to address. Its consideration and response to the query of “Who are public spaces within our cities and towns are really serving?” can be a valuable resource for today’s social practice artist who co-creates interdisciplinary art with members of the public. Leite’s work might also be exemplary to educators, as a benchmark for what an engaged and differentiated playful learning experience could entail. In order for playful learning to be a truly effective form of learning and development, there needs to be a collaboration between educators (or any adult or guardian) and students (or children). Recent studies, such as the Playful Participatory Research, suggest that when giving children the space and time to play, adults should also embrace and model playfulness. According to the study, they can do this by “designing adult learning environments that mirror the playful learning environments they desire for children.”²⁸
The confluence of art, activism, and playful education means a significant shift from the traditional role of an artist and/or educator. As social practice artist and educator, Gregory Sholette, writes, “Anyone who teaches visual art is familiar with the following problem. Two seemingly opposite pedagogical poles appear to be collapsing. On one side is the singularity of artistic vision expressed as a commitment to a particular material or medium. On the other is an ever-increasing pressure on students to work collaboratively through social and participatory formats, often in a public context outside the white cube.”²⁹
Elvira Leite’s pedagogical methodology throughout the Pena Ventosa project, supported a communal sense of ethics within the children artists, while also empowering them to express their identities and agency as influential citizens of their neighborhood. Their collaborative efforts were successful in instilling a sense of pride for their community and an empathetic understanding of one another. Additionally, the art that they presented in the public realm was revered by the adults and contributed to the progressive responses happening across the country. The city streets became a safe-space for the youth to play and be kids, while also gaining valuable life skills and an experiential awareness of their roles as agents of change.
- Ben Mardell, Katie E. Ertel, S. Lynneth Solis, Samantha LeVangie, Siyuan Fan, Gina Maurer, and Melissa Scarpate, “More than one way: An approach to teaching that supports playful learning,” Harvard Graduate School of Education, accessed Nov. 14, 2021, http://www.pz.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/PoP%20USA%20More%20than%20one%20way%20working%20paper_FINAL_25%20Jan%202021.pdf.
- Claire Liu, & Lynneth Solis, Hanne Jensen, Emily Hopkins, Davve Neale, Jennifer Zosh, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, and David Whitebread, Neuroscience and learning through play: a review of the evidence. (Billund, Denmark: The Lego Foundation, Nov. 2017), 3.
- Ben Mardell et al., “More than one way: An approach to teaching that supports playful learning.”
- Elliot W. Eisner, “What can education learn from the arts about the practice of education?” infed.org, Jun. 20, 2019. https://infed.org/mobi/what-can-education-learn-from-the-arts-about-the-practice-of-education/.
- Mishkin Gallery (@mishkingallery), “Photo of children of Pena Ventosa making posters by Elvira Leite,” Instagram photo, Mar. 20, 2019. https://www.instagram.com/p/BvPHJzRFB11/
- Clara Vale, “The social rise of a housing intervention: Álvaro Siza project for Bouça neighbourhood” (paper presented at the 42nd IAHS World Congress on Housing, Naples, Italy, Apr. 2018), 2.
- Lucía Almeida Matos and Susana Lourenço Marques (eds), Pedagogy of the Streets, Porto 1977 (Porto: Pierrot le Fou and La Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto, 2016).
- Elvira Leite and Sofia Victorino, “Excerpts from an interview with Elvira Leite, May 2016,” in Pedagogy of the Streets, in Porto 1977, eds. Lucía Almeida Matos and Susana Lourenço Marques (Porto: Pierrot le Fou and La Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto, 2016), 111.
- Vale, “The social rise of a housing intervention: Álvaro Siza project for Bouça neighbourhood,” 3.
- Eduardo Fernandes, “The language of the SAAL program. Similarities and variations in the work of the SAAL Teams in Porto,” in SAAL and Architecture, eds. José António Bandeirinha, Delfim Sardo, and Gonçalo Canto Moniz (Porto: Fundação Serralves), 140 – 147.
- Vale, “The social rise of a housing intervention: Álvaro Siza project for Bouça neighbourhood,” 2.
- Leite and Victorino, “Excerpts from an interview with Elvira Leite, May 2016,” 109 – 113.
- Sofia Lopes Borges, “Violence and Invisibility During Salazarism: The Politics of Visibility Through the Films 48 and O Alar da Rede,” (Goldsmiths, University of London, 2017).
- António Gomes Ferreira, and Erika González García, “Textbooks and national Catholicism in the dictatorships of Salazar and Franco,” Educação e Pesquisa, 47 (2021).
- Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, trans. Myra Bergman Ramos (New York: Herder and Herder, 1970), 39.
- Adam Zucker, “Fröbel’s Gifts, Noguchi’s Playgrounds,” Artfully Learning, Dec. 1, 2020.
- Jean Piaget, Gil Henriques, Edgar Ascher, and Terrance Brown, Morphisms and Categories: Comparing and Transforming (Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1992).
- Karen Hamblen, “Artistic Development as a Process of Universal-Relative Selection Possibilities” (paper presented at the National Symposium for Research in Art Education, Champaign-Urbana, IL, Oct. 2-5, 1984), 4-11.
- Leite and Victorino, “Excerpts from an interview with Elvira Leite, May 2016,” 112.
- Leite and Victorino, “Excerpts from an interview with Elvira Leite, May 2016,” 113.
- Isabel Menezes, “Civic Education in Portugal: Curricular Evolutions in Basic Education,” Journal of Social Science Education 2, no. 10 (Nov. 2003): 1-13.
- Cristina Nunes de Azevedo and Isabel Menezes, “Transition to Democracy and Citizenship Education in Portugal: Changes and Continuities in the Curricula and in Adolescents? Opportunities for Participation,” Journal of Social Science Education 9, no. 1 (Jan. 2008): 131-148.
- Moifa Bandele, “Children Occupy Wall Street: It’s About Sharing. They get it! Why doesn’t everyone?” Moms Rising Together, Oct. 13, 2011.
- Rachel Hajar, “What has Art to do with Medicine?.” Heart Views: The Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association 19, no. 1 (2018): 34-35.
- Taylor Heyman, “Coronavirus: Superhero sculpture ‘thanks’ New York health workers,” The National, May 1, 2020.
- Lucía Almeida Matos, “Pedagogy of the Streets, An Exhibition,” in Pedagogy of the Streets, Porto 1977, eds. Lucía Almeida Matos and Susana Lourenço Marques (Porto: Pierrot le Fou and La Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto, 2016), 106.
- Bradley L Garrett, “The privatisation of cities’ public spaces is escalating. It is time to take a stand,” The Guardian, Aug. 4, 2015.
- Megina Baker and Jen Ryan, “Playful provocations and playful mindsets: teacher learning and identity shifts through playful participatory research,” International Journal of Play 10 no.1 (2021): 6-24. DOI: 10.1080/21594937.2021.1878770
- Gregory Sholette, “After OWS: Social Practice Art, Abstraction, and the Limits of the Social,” e-flux Journal 31, January 2012. https://www.e-flux.com/journal/31/68204/after-ows-social-practice-art-abstraction-and-the-limits-of-the-social/