Embodied Learning Makes ‘The Classics’ Relevant

Screen Shot 2018-04-26 at 2.20.21 PM
Saint Orlan’s Reincarnation (1990). Courtesy of Chromatic Spiral

Embodied Learning is a Constructivist educational theory and practice that integrates sensory and cognitive responses in order to solve a problem. Embodied Learning encompasses students intellectual, physical, and social engagement through a collaborative process where students aren’t solely thinking about solutions, but rather, living the solutions. This isn’t dissimilar to many practices in contemporary art, where the artist combines themselves and the viewer into an active partnership. This is seen in previous posts, which discussed Pablo Helguera’s Social Practice Art  and experiential art works by Tino Sehgal and James Turrell.

Having students engage in a physical or social activity in response to works of art will enhance their personal understanding and appreciation of the work.  According to a study in museum education by Hubbard (2007), embodied experiences make the knowledge that students would ordinarily receive from a lecture more meaningful. By integrating their unique personal experiences into art appreciation, students will make meaningful connections and realize the timelessness of works of art. The way educators can introduce students to “classic” artworks created across time and place, might be best served through an embodied learning approach.  For example, after having an analytical dialog around a specific painting by J.M.W. Turner, students could be prompted to approach the work through poetry. In fact, Turner himself devoted time and energy to thinking about and writing poetry, a fact that could be shared with the students after they’ve created their own unique responses to Turner’s work of art. Students would be asked to reflect upon the painting by writing the first several words that come to fruition while standing before the artwork. Having compiled a list of reactions, the students could form small groups and collaborate on a combinatory poem that is a social and emotional response to the visual artwork. The combined poems can then be read out loud in a staged poetry reading. 

Another example of an embodied learning experience that analyzes, interprets and re-presents Turner’s work could include either the construction of a performance or a soundtrack that responds to the painting. Looking at Turner’s Fishing Boats Entering Calais Harbor (1803), students could be prompted to describe the scene using sounds. They can each select a particular element of the painting to act or sound out. For example, one student might look at the painting, notice the intensity of the waves, and make the sound of a turbulent sea. Another might add the voices of the fishermen shouting to each other as they steer their vessel into the harbor. Each visitor can add their ‘instrument’ on top of the other until a fully enlivened soundtrack has been created. Through this exercise, they’ve metaphorically stepped into the artist’s world and have understood that painting is not solely a visual experience. 

Analyzing work by contemporary artists who have remixed and referenced historical works of art is another way that educators can incorporate embodied learning into engaging lessons. In a previous post, we looked at how Kehinde Wiley’s remixing of Baroque and Neo-Classical paintings from the Western Canon, reflected the contemporary urban experience. There are also great examples of how contemporary artists such as Cindy Sherman and ORLAN use embodied practices to transform historical imagery into a contemporary form of expression in order to address the intersectionality of identity and make historical works more relevant to contemporary issues.

ORLAN’s landmark work The Reincarnation of Saint ORLAN, featured her undergoing nine plastic surgeries, which adapted characteristics of women featured in famous historical artworks. Her transformation included the forehead of da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, the chin of Venus from Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus, the nose from Jean-Léon Gérôme’s portrayal of Psyche, the lips of François Boucher’s depiction of Europa, and the eyes of Roman Goddess Diana, from a 16th Century French painting. By synthesizing all of these elements from women portrayed in famous works of art, ORLAN commented on the perception of beauty in Western Culture. Her monumental work of embodied art critically analyzed and presented ways in which the canon of Western Art has been designed and implemented for the enjoyment and gaze of the male viewer.

Cindy Sherman also comments on the historical depiction of women through the lens of the male gaze. Through acting as the model, stylist, art director, and photographer, Sherman re-presents iconic imagery of women in order to challenge traditional perceptions that men typical express when viewing women in film and magazines. For example, her series titled Centerfolds (1981) exposes the stereotypes that are frequently used to portray women in the entertainment and advertising industries. In an interview about this series, Sherman stated that she “wanted a man opening up the magazine suddenly look at it with an expectation of something lascivious and then feel like the violator that they would be looking at this woman who is perhaps a victim. I didn’t think of them as victims at the time…Obviously I’m trying to make someone feel bad for having a certain expectation.” By using an embodied process, where Sherman physically transforms herself into canonical depictions of women throughout Western History, she is making a powerful contemporary statement about how our collective culture still embraces traditional chauvinistic models.

Taking inspiration from ORLAN and Sherman, students can think about how they can express themselves in response to visual culture, in a way that is reflective of how they envision themselves in contemporary society.  In education, the term ‘enduring understandings’ is used to signify the “big ideas” that are crucial to a discipline and have lasting value beyond the classroom. In other words, what are the core tenets and framework that students need to understand so that they will have the skill set to revisit them over the course of their life? Art provides a conceptual and emotional foundation wherein artists utilize the power of intellectual, physical, and social engagement to address contemporary issues and themes that matter to them.

Screen Shot 2018-04-26 at 3.23.09 PM
An embodied learning activity around Matisse’s The Dance. Courtesy of artist/educator Lionel Cruet.

Whether referencing works of historical or contemporary art, an embodied learning exercise in the art classroom should include a critical discussion around what elements students can relate to within a work of art and how they might incorporate those elements into their own realm. Students could then discuss how they’d re-stage historical works of art in order to create an original artwork that expresses their personal and cultural relevance. Some examples include adapting characters within historical paintings into a contemporary environment by re-staging the original scene as a collaborative performance, a photo shoot, or a soundtrack that represents certain elements from the original work in a new context. We looked at a hypothetical model for embodied learning featuring the work of the 18th Century British painter J.M.W. Turner, as well as how contemporary artists like Cindy Sherman and ORLAN use embodied practices to transform historical representations into a contemporary feminist statement. A great example of how embodied learning can be practically implemented in a diverse educational setting is contemporary artist Lionel Cruet’s lesson for High School students around The Dance (I) (1909) by Henri Matisse. Cruet’s unit on The Dance transforms the classic painting into an embodied art project, where students examined The Dance (I) (1909) on view at The Museum of Modern Art New York and created their own contemporary interpretations of the painting by working collaboratively in groups to pose as the figures in the famous painting. The painting has been associated with the “Dance of the Young Girls” from Russian composer Igor Stravinsky’s ballet and orchestral composition The Rites of Spring (1913). What would these jovial figures be dancing along to if they were transported into the current era?

For many of us, the arts are a way to express personal and symbolic representation.  The individual’s knowledge of art comes through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences in a manner that has relevance within their own lives. Embodied learning unites traditional information and context with engaging activities that enable students to interact with artworks in a myriad of highly personalized ways.


Reference:

Hubard, Olga (2007). Complete Engagement: Embodied Response in Art Museum Education. Art Education, 60(6), 46-56. 

 

Advertisements
Embodied Learning Makes ‘The Classics’ Relevant

Connecting Culture Through Experience and Education

Screen Shot 2018-04-23 at 5.49.37 PM
Pablo Helguera leads participants in a collaborative storytelling exercise in La Austral, S.A. de C.V at El Museo de Los Sures. Image courtesy of ISCP, New York.

Pablo Helguera is a Mexican born, New York City based, socially engaged artist whose multi-disciplinary work has strong connections to language, experiential learning, and cultural identity. His artwork takes the form of social practice art, where the artist and the viewer are interrelated participants in an artwork’s process. Many of Helguera’s socially-engaged art projects have connections to the ideas of progressive pedagogical theorists like John Dewey and Paolo Freire, who stated that successful education is contingent upon a balanced and ethical partnership between the teacher and students. Helguera’s work acknowledges that humans are not tabula rasas (blank slates), waiting to be filled with knowledge at different points in their development, but rather constructors of metacognitive skills, prior experiences, preconception, and knowledge. In order to successfully do this, the educator must bypass the traditional role of being the arbitrator of knowledge and become a collaborator in developing an educational experience that is upheld through common participatory activities. Traditional art, like traditional education, views the artist, cultural critic, or institution as the arbitrator of aesthetic and cultural value. However, social practice art transcends enforcement and embraces a participatory shared experience between the artist and the public.

Helguera’s socially engaged projects focus on the embodiment of progressive education and art. When these two disciplines are utilized together they have the transformative ability to enact social change through interdisciplinary and multicultural communication and human relationships.  In this respect, his work is largely about a qualitative process where the artist is constructing knowledge and educational experiences collaboratively with the participants who enter into the artwork democratically. Helguera and his collaborators exchange knowledge through the use of oral, visual, and literary tradition, which explores personal and collective identity.

In 2006, Helguera initiated The School of Panamerican Unrest, a four-month long road-trip across the Pan-American Highway. Helguera’s journey started in Alaska where he spoke with Marie Smith Jones, the last speaker of Eyak, which is a Native Alaskan Language; and concluded in Puerto Williams, Tierra del Fuego where he spoke with Cristina Calderón, the last living speaker of the indigenous Yaghan language that was spoken by the Yaghan people of the Southern Cone. Throughout the trip, which included twenty-seven official stops between Alaska and Chile, Helguera set up a portable schoolhouse to examine the relationship between art, immigration, and cultural identity within a Pan-American framework. These topics were explored through public performances, discussions, and film screenings.

In 2013, Helguera continued to explore themes of language, immigration, and cultural identity through Librería Donceles, a non-profit used bookstore containing Spanish language literature. The bookstore became the first of its kind in contemporary New York City, a metropolis with over two million latinos (roughly 25% of the city’s population). Within Librería Donceles, visitors had access to a wide variety of Spanish language books as well as a cultural hub where readers can connect with physical books and enjoy a diverse selection of great literary works. Visitors had the opportunity to assemble inside Librería Donceles and organize poetry readings, book discussions, or collaborative performances. This temporary bookstore reflected upon the function of language within culture and the effects that language has on the Latin American diaspora within a city such as New York and other metropolises where the project travelled to such as Phoenix, Arizona, Seattle, Washington, and Chicago, Illinois. The proceeds from the sales of books was donated to support local literacy programs for immigrant communities. In the spirit of education, art, and literacy, the video above (from PBS’ The Art Assignment) features a great creative prompt from Helguera where participants of a small group will each choose a play, select several lines from their play and arrange them together to form a combined play. Starting at 7’55” in the video, there is an example of a “Combinatory Play”at Librería Donceles featuring Helguera and two other participants

On April 11th, 2018, Helguera launched La Austral, S.A. de C.V at El Museo de Los Sures on the Southside of Williamsburg, Brooklyn. The neighborhood, which is a historic cultural hub for Puerto Rican, Dominican, Polish, Italian, and Hasidic Jewish communities, is the perfect fit for this collaborative dispensary of oral narratives. Visitors take part in storytelling workshops and can hear stories told by various facilitators who worked with Helguera in bringing this project to fruition. All of the facilitators are immigrants to New York City and include artists, activists, educators, poets, and writers. The project was inspired by the turmoil surrounding DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) recipients, who are facing increased hostility from Right-Wing partisans. The use of storytelling is a practice that spans time and location and brings people together in a communal environment.

There are many benefits to bringing art-centered embodied learning into the educational sphere. One of the essential aspects of Helguera’s multicultural work is the multilingual connections that are established as a result of an exchange of dialogue through interdisciplinary communication and process based partnerships. In other words, human relationships, which bring together a multitude of experiences, culture, and educational perspectives. The focus on bridging the gap between speakers of different languages in order to open up new and exciting relationships between different cultures, is indicative of the importance of supporting bi-lingual learning in the education system. Bi-lingual learning is rising across the United States, and has strong benefits for both native English speakers and students whose native language is not English. Garcia (2009) cites research by Thomas & Collier (2002) that supports how educators can scaffold an emergent bilingual student’s learning by building upon their strengths via a dual language curriculum. In other words, educators can help English language learners become proficient in speaking English by using the students’ strengths and comprehension of their native language to discover commonalities in the way we all communicate. The result is that the students are able to think, communicate, and strive using both English and their native language in tandem. This also has the same positive effect for English speaking students who are immersed in a bilingual environment where they learn to make bilingual connections throughout the curriculum. Incorporating a dual language pedagogical approach has positive effects on everyone from students, schools, parents, and the communities at large.

It is time that as a society, we move towards a democratic approach to embodying our collective experiences through art. Art’s most powerful function is not as a pure aesthetic object for us to treat as sacred, but rather a process-based experiential event where we learn and construct knowledge together. Art-centered interdisciplinary projects such as the aforementioned works by Pablo Helguera, strengthen our appreciation of multiculturalism by establishing mutual empathetic relationships between different communities that exist within our local, national, and global landscape.


La Austral, S.A. de C.V. is on view through May 13th at El Museo de Los Sures, 120 South 1st Street, Brooklyn, NY 11249.


Reference:

Garcia, Ofelia. (2009). Emergent Bilinguals and TESOL: What’s in a Name? TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 322-326

 

Connecting Culture Through Experience and Education

Participatory Learning: Artworks as Experiences

According to recent opinions and research, experiences and not objects are the preferred type of consumerism among young adults, who are more interested in spending their money on (to name a few) cooking classes, cultural festivals, quilting workshops, indoor rock climbing, yoga at sunrise followed by an early morning dance party, and so on; than physical objects (gadgets, gizmos, etc.).

Contemporary art has also experienced a shift towards art that is more experientially focused. Instead of an interest in making traditional art objects that would exist on gallery walls (or in the market place), artists like Tino Sehgal and James Turrell produce artworks that offer a unique interactive visual, physical, and cognitive experience for the viewer. Their art makes the viewer a part of the work by engaging them through a range of social and emotional stimuli, whether it is changing a physical environment like Turrell does, or constructing social situations like Sehgal does.

If you’ve visited a work of art by Turrell such as Meeting at PS1, and were wondering where he derived his inspiration from, I highly recommended hopping on the 7 train and going up to the Flushing Quaker Meeting House one Sunday morning. Meeting is a site specific installation, where Turrell altered the museum’s ceiling to provide an unobstructed view of the sky. Viewers sit on wooden benches that face one another and can share in conversation or a silent reflection, while natural light and the elements are filtered in from above.

Having experienced Quaker church at different points in my life, I can say that James Turrell is one of the most profound artists for me personally. I don’t think I would have been able to engage in his work as repletely, had it not been for my reflective moments in these meeting houses. That said, Turrell makes work that everyone can make significant based on their own unique experiences and engagement, so whatever you choose to bring to it will be truly unique.

Quaker meetings for worship are fixated on a silent, meditative self-reflection and the sharing of revelations or messages with other ‘friends’ in the congregation. The experience sharing personal or spiritual thoughts with others is a very intimate occasion. When you take part in a meeting for worship, you are experiencing what Quaker’s call “The Light Within,” which is no doubt, where Turrell, a Quaker, draws inspiration for his light-based installations. The light within is symbolic of a ‘divine’ presence within ourselves. Whether that presence is associated with an organized religion is entirely subjective. People may choose to share scripture, poetry, comment on current events, or suggest ways they wish to better themselves, help others, or work within the community.

Tino Sehgal goes even further outside the traditional role that we typically attribute to an artist. Sehgal’s art is focused on the creation of ephemeral social and emotional situations. For many of his museum scale exhibitions, the artist works with a population of non-artists to produce multi-disciplinary situations that are aimed at bringing the viewer directly into the piece. The basis for these interactive pieces is rooted in a social choreography, where Sehgal’s non-artist performers are trained to move about the physical space and engage the viewers in movement, song, or inquiry based communication. Experiencing a piece by Sehgal is an exemplar of embodied learning, where issues and investigations are explored through both cognitive and kinesthetic means. The pieces themselves are fleeting moments in time (besides being documented through film or photography, no physical trace is left at the end), however, the viewer’s memory of their experience remains long after the exhibition ends.

The phenomenon of experiential art does not replace the effect that viewing more traditional art has, it simply adds another dimension to what we can perceive as art and engage in as artists, educators, and appreciators. Analyzing, interpreting, and presenting all varieties of art (cf.: Ways of Seeing and Art as Therapy) has an enormous value on our everyday experiences. For example, Georgia O’Keefe’s bold and enlarged paintings of flowers might prompt the viewer to be more in tune to their natural surroundings. The next time they’re out for a walk in the park, they might see and respond to the flora with a heightened sense of awareness and respect. O’Keefe realized that art has a profound way of reminding us to slow down and appreciate life’s experiences more greatly, when she stated:

“When you take a flower in your hand and really look at it, it’s your world for the moment. I want to give that world to someone else. Most people in the city rush around so, they have no time to look at a flower. I want them to see it whether they want to or not.”

There are many reasons why contemporary art, which is divorced from the traditional studio based art discipline, is beneficial in an educational environment. The first and foremost is that it enables students think outside of the realm of using traditional materials in order to solve aesthetic problems and express themselves and their collective identity. Producing artistic experiences allows students to engage in a social and emotional experience without relying on formulaic rules that often (when used solely as a means to develop artistic skill or technique) stagnate personal style and communication. When coupled with more traditional modes of creating, experiential based art provides a greater vocabulary and expanded set of tools to communicate one’s ideas and vision effectively. It also allows for many opportunities to introduce collaborative projects that can lead to multi-disciplinary partnerships with other students, faculty, and the local community. You don’t need to be a skilled draughtsman to create art in the contemporary era, which means that art education needs to embrace this facet (and develop curriculum for a multi-disciplinary visual arts program) with as much certainty as it has embraced the traditional canon of instruction.

Participatory Learning: Artworks as Experiences

Performance of the Oppressed

Tania Bruguera’s politically charged performances present a challenging and worthwhile approach for the radical art educator. Her work is forceful and if it makes you uncomfortable, that is evidence of its success. She considers her artistic discipline to be”Behavior Art,” which is a movement rooted in performance and pedagogy that is more concerned with socio-politcal ramifications of art making than with aesthetic or material outcomes. It is a concept, not unlike Joseph Beuys’ ‘Social Sculpture’.

Bruguera’s performances are experiential education experiences where the artist and the viewers enter into a social and emotional dialog for the benefit of contributing positively within their community. Bruguera’s work often comments on the oppressive forces in government, which have detrimental effects on society. For example, in 2015 she completed 100-hour performance, a reading of Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), in her Havana based studio. Shortly afterwards she was arrested by Cuban officers. The Burden of Guilt (1997), is a metaphor for resisting colonialism and authoritarianism. The performance was inspired by a legendary Cuban narrative where the indigenous people resisted Spanish occupation by eating dirt until the collectively died. In her performance, Bruguera consumed a mixture of dirt and salt water.

By challenging the physical, cognitive, and communicative limits of the body, Bruguera’s shocking and corporeal performances raise a critical conscious within the viewer who realizes the need to break free from oppressive societal structures.

Performance of the Oppressed