Participatory Learning: Artworks as Experiences

According to recent opinions and research, experiences and not objects are the preferred type of consumerism among young adults, who are more interested in spending their money on (to name a few) cooking classes, cultural festivals, quilting workshops, indoor rock climbing, yoga at sunrise followed by an early morning dance party, and so on; than physical objects (gadgets, gizmos, etc.).

Contemporary art has also experienced a shift towards art that is more experientially focused. Instead of an interest in making traditional art objects that would exist on gallery walls (or in the market place), artists like Tino Sehgal and James Turrell produce artworks that offer a unique interactive visual, physical, and cognitive experience for the viewer. Their art makes the viewer a part of the work by engaging them through a range of social and emotional stimuli, whether it is changing a physical environment like Turrell does, or constructing social situations like Sehgal does.

If you’ve visited a work of art by Turrell such as Meeting at PS1, and were wondering where he derived his inspiration from, I highly recommended hopping on the 7 train and going up to the Flushing Quaker Meeting House one Sunday morning. Meeting is a site specific installation, where Turrell altered the museum’s ceiling to provide an unobstructed view of the sky. Viewers sit on wooden benches that face one another and can share in conversation or a silent reflection, while natural light and the elements are filtered in from above.

Having experienced Quaker church at different points in my life, I can say that James Turrell is one of the most profound artists for me personally. I don’t think I would have been able to engage in his work as repletely, had it not been for my reflective moments in these meeting houses. That said, Turrell makes work that everyone can make significant based on their own unique experiences and engagement, so whatever you choose to bring to it will be truly unique.

Quaker meetings for worship are fixated on a silent, meditative self-reflection and the sharing of revelations or messages with other ‘friends’ in the congregation. The experience sharing personal or spiritual thoughts with others is a very intimate occasion. When you take part in a meeting for worship, you are experiencing what Quaker’s call “The Light Within,” which is no doubt, where Turrell, a Quaker, draws inspiration for his light-based installations. The light within is symbolic of a ‘divine’ presence within ourselves. Whether that presence is associated with an organized religion is entirely subjective. People may choose to share scripture, poetry, comment on current events, or suggest ways they wish to better themselves, help others, or work within the community.

Tino Sehgal goes even further outside the traditional role that we typically attribute to an artist. Sehgal’s art is focused on the creation of ephemeral social and emotional situations. For many of his museum scale exhibitions, the artist works with a population of non-artists to produce multi-disciplinary situations that are aimed at bringing the viewer directly into the piece. The basis for these interactive pieces is rooted in a social choreography, where Sehgal’s non-artist performers are trained to move about the physical space and engage the viewers in movement, song, or inquiry based communication. Experiencing a piece by Sehgal is an exemplar of embodied learning, where issues and investigations are explored through both cognitive and kinesthetic means. The pieces themselves are fleeting moments in time (besides being documented through film or photography, no physical trace is left at the end), however, the viewer’s memory of their experience remains long after the exhibition ends.

The phenomenon of experiential art does not replace the effect that viewing more traditional art has, it simply adds another dimension to what we can perceive as art and engage in as artists, educators, and appreciators. Analyzing, interpreting, and presenting all varieties of art (cf.: Ways of Seeing and Art as Therapy) has an enormous value on our everyday experiences. For example, Georgia O’Keefe’s bold and enlarged paintings of flowers might prompt the viewer to be more in tune to their natural surroundings. The next time they’re out for a walk in the park, they might see and respond to the flora with a heightened sense of awareness and respect. O’Keefe realized that art has a profound way of reminding us to slow down and appreciate life’s experiences more greatly, when she stated:

“When you take a flower in your hand and really look at it, it’s your world for the moment. I want to give that world to someone else. Most people in the city rush around so, they have no time to look at a flower. I want them to see it whether they want to or not.”

There are many reasons why contemporary art, which is divorced from the traditional studio based art discipline, is beneficial in an educational environment. The first and foremost is that it enables students think outside of the realm of using traditional materials in order to solve aesthetic problems and express themselves and their collective identity. Producing artistic experiences allows students to engage in a social and emotional experience without relying on formulaic rules that often (when used solely as a means to develop artistic skill or technique) stagnate personal style and communication. When coupled with more traditional modes of creating, experiential based art provides a greater vocabulary and expanded set of tools to communicate one’s ideas and vision effectively. It also allows for many opportunities to introduce collaborative projects that can lead to multi-disciplinary partnerships with other students, faculty, and the local community. You don’t need to be a skilled draughtsman to create art in the contemporary era, which means that art education needs to embrace this facet (and develop curriculum for a multi-disciplinary visual arts program) with as much certainty as it has embraced the traditional canon of instruction.

Advertisements
Participatory Learning: Artworks as Experiences

Intrinsic Value in Contemporary Art Collaborations…and Learning Through Them

I am thankful that I was recently introduced to the work of the Slow Art Collective through Louisa Penfold, who writes Art.Play.Children.Pedagogy. The Slow Art Collective creates interactive installations, which are based upon “the slow absorption of culture through community links by creating something together and blurring the boundary between the artists and viewer.” They go on to state that their work “is a sustainable arts practice, not an extreme solution; a reasonable alternative to deal with real problems in contemporary art practice.” Slow Art Collective’s collaborative art work is very much inline with several major theories in education such as social and emotional learning, embodied learning, cross-disciplinary STEAM, and the Reggio Emilia approach. I want to focus on the latter approach in relation to the Slow Art Collective’s work.

The Reggio Emilia Approach was founded in Italy after World War II. It focuses on nurturing pre-school and early childhood student-centered learning environments, and is based on Constructivist educational methodology.  philosophy is based around these principle beliefs:

  • Children must have some control over the direction of their learning
  • Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, and observing
  • Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that they must be allowed to explore.
  • Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.

Within the Slow Art Collective’s installations, there are a multitude of tactile environments that engage children (and adult visitors) in a collaborative materials based exploration, where the viewers actively contribute to the aesthetic and conceptual design of the art work.

While the visitor moves throughout the various components of the installation, they are partaking in an exchange of value, not in the monetary sense (which is often unfairly/unfortunately tied to art), but in the sense of appreciating the way creative experiences connect us and help us to become better members of our community. Art that is collaborative goes beyond the traditional artist/viewer relationship and forms open-ended art works, where viewers become participants and experience the work of art through a combination of physical and intellectual engagement. By having collaborative components, the artists are sharing some control over the direction of the work with the viewer/participant. Additionally, the work is made replete through the viewer’s touching, moving, listening and observing. Furthermore, these installations create a safe space where visitors form relationships with each other by sharing in a cooperative creation of an art work, as well as a profound individual and shared experience.

The playful (yet serious) approach to art making promotes both self and collaborative expression, and teaches us that it is the process –the work we put into relationships and working together creatively– that matters the most.

Intrinsic Value in Contemporary Art Collaborations…and Learning Through Them

Scrutinizing History Through Art

Historical accounts are subjective. In other words, because history is written from the perspective of the historian (or the collective of historians whose writings must be peer reviewed before they end up in the history books), it is impossible not to suggest that their personal bias’ or the larger ideological framework of their field (and the wealthy patrons who fund their work) is at play in what they choose to include and omit from their historical accounts.

Carr (1961) stated that historians selectively interpret a historical account with a selective and personal bias. Hamblen (1985) suggests that the historian’s own ego and belief system is connected to their written account. Therefore, a history written by the powerful or influential is less an accurate representation of culture, and more of a glorification of the hierarchical system. Furthermore, historians have long been known to offer differing accounts on specific events. Some may claim it happened one way, while others may disagree entirely, or offer an opposing account. The way we view history is consistently changing based upon, which value system(s) our society holds to be more valuable above all others.

It makes sense that the version of history we have had in our curriculum is skewed from the perspective of those who have maintained power (in government, education, economics, etc). Have you ever heard someone say “the winners write history”? If the history of Western Civilization was written from the perspective of the lower and working classes, –the skilled (but underpaid) laborers– and marginalized communities, we would likely have an alternative narrative, which would contrast the current historical doctrine that has become a part of our collective consciousness.

For example, Amburgy (1990) presents an alternate side of history focused on the education of the masses. She cites examples of progressive movement educators like Jane Adams (1860-1935) and Ellen Gates Starr (1859-1940) who understood that an education, especially one bolstered by the arts, would lead to a more skilled and autonomous workforce. These ideas during the age of industrialization (1870s-1900) were seen as counterproductive to the elite who wanted to speed up production by replacing skilled laborers with machines.The prevailing sense of importance for the study of business and technology led to the prevalence of an education that is more quantitative based, while the liberal and fine arts are less celebrated. It is no surprise that with mass-production came the degradation of “value” and taste. In other words, intrinsic value became skewed, and our collective culture embraced the cheaply made assembly line object over the handmade artisan’s object.

Art has always been at the forefront in blending the natural and the synthetic elements. The Arts and Crafts movement during the late 19th and early 20th century’s came as a response to the degradation of the decorative arts in the wake of machine manufactured design. Artisans were successful in awakening the public’s appreciation for handcrafted objects, and the movement made progress in ascertaining the decorative arts as a high form of art, synonymous with fine art (the two fields had been previously kept apart). Although the movement, in reality, couldn’t compete with the trends of Capitalism, it remains an important influence for those who seek to become producers and not consumers. In an ideal world, we would all have skills that would enable us to create the products we desire versus purchasing mass marketed brand name goods.

The rise of Capitalism and Nationalism presented a challenge and fodder for visual artists to address significant social and political issues. This is especially important in an age where there is so much indifference or disdain towards the suffering of others. Everyone should be familiar with Picasso’s Guernica (1937) and Goya’s El Tres de Mayo (1808), which visualize the horrors of war and oppression; themes, which sadly have continued to inspire works of art in this day and age. There’s also a wealth of information to be gleaned from the more contemporary works such as Leon Golub’s paintings of dictators and torture scenes; the anarchic political paintings of Peter Saul; Kerry James Marshall, Robert Colescott, and Mickalene Thomas’ aesthetic responses to the Western canon through the lens of African-American history and identity; Benny Andrews’, and May Stevens’ portrayals of Civil Rights leaders; and the artistic celebration of women’s vital contributions to history and culture through the work of the Guerrilla Girls, Judy Chicago and Nancy Spero (See: Guerrilla Girls’ wide array of public posters, billboards, and videos; Chicago’s The Dinner Party; and Spero’s Notes in Time). Additionally, the work of Dorothea Lange, whose poignant photographs of poor and marginalized citizens from the Great Depression through WWII, raised social consciousness about the dispossessed and unemployed farmers and laborers, as well as the Japanese-Americans who were forced into internment camps. Alongside Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States (1980-2005), these images provide a stark reality of the “American Dream” being deferred.

The list goes on and a whole curriculum could be written and implemented using art to illuminate and reveal different variations of historical narratives. Historical works of art should encourage students to interrogate their own personal and collective histories and not settle for one single viewpoint simply because it has been passed down as ‘academic’ status-quo.

Screen Shot 2018-01-23 at 5.20.09 PM
Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party (1979) at the Brooklyn Museum is a symbolic narrative of women’s profound impact on Western Civilization. Photographed by Arthistorygrrl

Works of art that comment upon social issues should bolster any history lesson. Having students analyze works of art by using Feldmen’s four step process of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging, will ensure that they understand that art can be used as a powerful tool to communicate different social, cultural, political, and economic viewpoints. It is also important that students understand that any work of art can be used as propaganda, and have them see (and discuss) examples of works of art that has been used by governments to strengthen its position of power and influence upon its citizens.

Screen Shot 2018-01-23 at 5.42.09 PM
Dorothea Lange’s iconic 1936 photograph, Migrant Mother, would be a great image to employ Feldman’s method of art criticism to. Before learning about the Great Depression, an educator could show students this image and ask them to describe, analyze, interpret, and judge this photograph. They should re-introduce the image while the students are learning about migrant workers and families during the Great Depression and prompt students to discuss the social and emotional effect that the work might have in relation to the social ills of that time, and whether this image and its subject matter holds true in the contemporary era.

In summation, we can learn a lot about history through art. Both discipline’s subjectivity makes for a profound and open-ended discourse. The fact that humans have been expressing and recording  their personal and collective observations visually since prehistoric times is a testament to the importance that art has on our perception in ‘making sense’ of the world. Art and History should be taught together, because each discipline bolster’s the other’s significance.

Current perspectives of history and culture undoubtedly champions the elite who have accumulated wealth and power. It is up to a new generation of progressive, forward thinking people to craft more democratic policies so that we can present an evolving look at the past and present that is more indicative of the collective and individual experience. Art can inspire our future ‘leaders’ to do just that.

Scrutinizing History Through Art

Transforming Tradition: Understanding Our Complex Identities through Art

It might seem hard to imagine that less than 65 years ago, there were separate schools for children based upon the color of their skin. When the contemporary artist Clarissa Sligh was growing up in Virginia county, she wasn’t allowed to attend schools with white children. In fact, when she was fifteen (in 1956), she was a part of a school desegregation case (Clarissa Thompson et. al. vs. Arlington County School Board). However, Sligh’s work as an artist focuses on transcending the traditional binary structures of race, gender, sexual orientation, and class. She has long been interested in exploring these themes through an intersectional lens, which means that the aforementioned aspects of humanity are not isolated from each other, and exist through a complex, but relational network.

Major themes in Sligh’s work include transformation and change. She is interested in the constructs of gender and sexual orientation, which is evident in works such as the Masculinity Project (1996-1999) and Jake (1996-2000). Many times, she’ll combine images with text to create a narrative, which is often related directly through the subject she’s depicting. Through her artistic explorations and experiences conversing with black men, women, and transgender people, Sligh poignantly portrays how a person’s identity goes beyond their race and gender, and that discrimination is also not limited to race, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Her ongoing collaborative project Transforming Hateis a multi-disciplinary artwork, which seeks to create an open ended framework for constructing our collective identities.

Another contemporary artist whose work focuses on the plurality of identity is Glenn Ligon. Ligon’s text based work is inspired by his personal experiences as a gay African-American male living in contemporary America. He appropriates text from well known fiction and non-fiction writers in a way that causes us to question preconceived notions of historical identity and human aspects like gender and race. Through his work, we are confronted with the harsh reality that Civil Rights era hate and discrimination still exists in a more complex way than our history books might have portrayed it. As a society we need to recognize this dire flaw within the human condition.

In Runaways (1993), Ligon recreated historical runaway slave broadsides by asking friends to describe him. Ligon constructed those descriptions into witty but poignant ‘self-portraits’ that made pertinent statements on identity politics. Berwick (2011) gives examples of these works: “Ran away, a man named Glenn. He has almost no hair. He has cat-eye glasses, medium-dark skin, cute eyebrows. . . . He talks out of the side of his mouth and looks at you sideways. Sometimes he has a loud laugh, and lately I’ve noticed he refers to himself as ‘mother;’” and “Ran away, Glenn, a black male, 5’8”, very short hair cut, nearly completely shaved, stocky build, 155-165 lbs., medium complexion (not “light skinned,” not “dark skinned,” slightly orange). Wearing faded blue jeans, short sleeve button-down 50’s style shirt, nice glasses (small, oval shaped), no socks. Very articulate, seemingly well-educated, does not look at you straight in the eye when talking to you. He is socially very adept, yet paradoxically, he’s somewhat of a loner.”

Screen Shot 2018-01-03 at 1.38.09 PM
Runaways (detail), 1993, 10 lithographs, 16 by 12 inches each. Whitney Museum of American Art. Image from Berwick, Carly, “Stranger in America.” Art in America, 23 Apr. 2011.

Through art we can really get a strong picture, which tells us that an individuals’ identity is more complex than simple dualities (black and white, rich or poor, trans or cis, etc). Our identities are made up of many facets, which include (but are not limited to) the color of our skin; the religion of our ancestors; the faith we practice; the gender or sexual orientation we identify as; our political affiliation; our hobbies; our physical and mental health; education; and social class.

Creating an “identity web/map” is a great exercise in the classroom that can support students’ understanding of each other. In an identity web/map, a student will fill out a personal chart filled with both the things that they feel identifies them and the labels they believe that society places upon them. Next, they will share these aspects with the rest of the class by posting their map around the classroom. Students will walk around with post-it notes in hand, and place their name next to aspects they see on their classmates maps that also resonate with their own personal identity. Finally, they will discuss what they’ve discovered as a whole class.

This would be a great time to introduce the work of contemporary artists like Sligh and  Ligon, and have a discussion where students can analyze work by these artists and point out which identity related issues these artists are commenting on and why. Lastly, a visual art project can be introduced where students will transform how they identify themselves (using their identity maps as reference) into a self-portrait. These self-portraits will make use of found and sourced material along with traditional art techniques to depict an image of themselves that includes but also goes beyond their physical description.

First, they’ll arrange the descriptions they jotted down on their web/maps about themselves into a short narrative sentence (could be in the form of a poem, an advertisement, a meme, or short biography). Then they’ll be prompted to use magazines, old history books, and the internet, to mine for reference imagery and text (or images and text that they can appropriate) that they feel is representative of their personal and collective identities, and construct a visual image that signifies these aspects of their humanity.

Transforming Tradition: Understanding Our Complex Identities through Art

Cityscape and the personalized experience

Landscape is an essential genre of art that has stood the test of time. Artists have been depicting their environments and using their surroundings as inspiration for centuries. The technique of landscape painting, drawing, and collage provides a great foundation for students to learn both formal aspects and techniques of visual art, while incorporating their personal history and prior knowledge in order to create a unique form of expression.

There are many great examples of landscapes that show how artists are personally impacted by their geographical settings. For instance, David Hockney’s relocation to the West Coast transformed his style of painting, and allowed him to explore his identity further with a newfound sense of freedom. Within a visual arts curriculum in urban schools, having students observe cityscapes (a type of landscape that features an urban setting) might be more appropriate than a rural or idyllic scene. There are a great deal of important works of art and artists that illustrate the social and emotional connection to city life. For example, students can analyze urban scenes by Martin Wong and/or Romare Bearden, and be asked to describe the work both in terms of its formal aspects (the elements of art & principles of design) and its subject matter, which can be interpreted in a way that should have personal relevance to their own lives.

Romare Bearden’s The Block (1971) depicts the artist’s interpretation of a typical block in the neighborhood of Harlem, New York. His style was inspired by the Cubist technique of cut-paper collage and Dadaist technique of photomontage, which afforded him to show multiple perspectives within a single image. For example, we can simultaneously see what is happening inside and outside of the buildings on the block, revealing the intimate reality of daily life as one might personally experience it versus being an outside observer. Bearden gives brick and mortar a personal character and gives the city street a Humanistic portrayal that signifies to us that he is both an admirer and a participant within this vibrant community.

Another artist who gave personal expression to city architecture was Martin Wong, whose paintings of brick red apartment buildings signified the artist’s unique connection to his Lower East Side community. In the painting La Vida (1988) Wong depicts a brick red apartment building similar to the many that exist in the Lower East Side, which features a diverse group of tenants, some of whom were his actual neighbors, and some of whom were figures within the arts community and the Downtown New York City community at large. Each individual in the painting is displayed as a portrait occupying a space within a window and is someone who has personal or historical significance to Wong. Some of the figures in this painting include the writer and poet Amiri Baraka, poet/playwright (and Wong’s lover) Miguel Piñero, and graffiti artist friends DAZE (seen analyzing the painting in the video below), Sharp, and LA2. Wong also included the celebrity, and inspirational figure, Mr. T, as well as some archetypal figures such as firefighters and policemen.

Wong’s work featuring Lower East Side apartment complexes, and Bearden’s Harlem street scenes, might be especially of interest to students who are growing up in densely populated city neighborhoods. By showing students work that has cultural relevance to their lives, an educator can challenge students to be astute observers and participants in their own community. Having students make their own cityscapes (this can be done in a variety of media, however, I prefer using cut paper and magazine image collage) or having them collaboratively contribute to a large-scale mural (to be displayed inside or outside of the school) of their city will open up the floor to a sharing of personal stories and memories, which may result in students better understanding each other and coming together through their shared life experiences.

Cityscape and the personalized experience

Life Lessons Through Children’s Art: How they learn to represent their world, and how that learning can teach and inspire us

Screen Shot 2018-01-02 at 4.18.56 PM

The wonderful thing about children’s art is that it is detached from the socio-economic structure of the “adult” art world, and, most importantly, it gives us a unique glimpse into their emotional and cognitive state of mind.  A child’s drawing, painting, sculpture in clay (or other material), or a doodle in their notebook is largely an unrestricted form of expression. If you’ve ever had the experience of listening to a young child talk about their art, it is most refreshing to hear them describe their process. In fact, a large part of early artistic learning comes from prompting them to explain and develop a narrative (imagined or real/representational or non-representational, but always at their own pace and from within) for their works of art as they’re working. This process, is actually more important than the “finished” product, because it shows us as educators, that they’re self evaluating as they’re creating and are making insightful connections by exploring with the material(s) they are working with.

Children begin their art-making journey through an exploration with the material at hand. They discover the material’s properties and how their physical actions change the material. Their discoveries then lead to insights, and sure enough, they’re making associations between what is in the paint (or clay, or paper collage, assemblage, etc.) to experiences in their own lives. This whole process is achieved in a playful, yet serious manner. From the get-go, children begin to understand that art-making is a potent form of communication, and they’ve got a lot to say! Children are also naturally curious and will ask big questions, which show they are eager to take part in the many facets that confront us in our contemporary lives.

This unbridled form of expression and inquisitiveness is why so many great artists, from Chagall, Klee, Dubuffet, Picasso, the CoBrA movement, and Jean-Michel Basquiat, looked at children’s artwork as inspiration for their own paintings. In fact, Basquiat was so inspired by the aesthetics and expression within children’s art that he had to unfairly assert to the art world and culture at large that “believe it or not I can actually draw.” However, it is the rawness and unfettered nature of his paintings that set him apart from the conceptual (and structured) art that dominated the 1980s art scene. Basquiat’s strength was in his ability to passionately and prolifically make associations between his life as an African-American and the collective experience of African-Americans. His ‘childlike’ style, which spurred from frequent “doodling,” afforded him freedom to combine and reflect a multitude of poignant imagery and ideas within a single canvas. Basquiat combined text as well as images in a body of work that addressed issues of racism, urban life, personal identity, as well as celebrated the contributions, which black individuals made that have shaped American life. Other contemporary artists such as Donald Baechler, Michael Scoggins and Brian Belott, also harness the immediacy and playfulness of children’s artwork and curiosity in order to make strong and serious statements about the socio-political environment that affects us as a culture at large.

Professional artists, who have gone through the full spectrum of artistic development, understand the importance of breaking the rules and routines of contemporary adult life, which can often become monotonous and far too restrictive. By embracing the more explorative, inquisitive, and subconscious side of themselves, individuals can return to the spontaneity and excitement that they experienced when making art during their childhood years. This is why it is so important that children are offered the opportunities to explore materials, techniques, and make unique works of art at a very young age. Their creativity should be applauded and their excitement and enthusiasm for making art should be scaffolded by their teachers and caregivers so that they hold dear the many positive qualities (empathy, inquisitiveness, eagerness to participate in events, etc.) and habits of mind (improvisation, thinking outside the box, turning mistakes into successes, etc.) that art making reveals.

Even the most serious of artists, such as Picasso knew this when he said “Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up.”

 

Life Lessons Through Children’s Art: How they learn to represent their world, and how that learning can teach and inspire us

What we can learn from Tim Rollins (1955-2017)

Screen Shot 2017-12-27 at 11.16.14 AM.png
Tim Rollins and K.O.S. Workshop for Amerika IX, 1987. Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte, North Carolina.

With the very sad news that Tim Rollins (1955-2017) has passed away, it is important that we recognize and harness the lessons he taught generations of inner city youth and the art world at large. Tim Rollins, was an artist, activist, and most importantly, a passionate educator who co-founded the activist art Group Material in 1979 and “The Art and Knowledge Workshop,” which introduced the world to K.O.S (Kids of Survival) around 1984.

Rollins and K.O.S showed us that no one is beyond the reach of a good education. The model of pedagogy Rollins developed as his curriculum at I.S. 52 in the South Bronx, was a cross-disciplinary student centered form of learning, which sought to empower and inspire at risk youth. Initially, Rollins (who was already a well-known contemporary artist and activist) was hired by the school’s principal to create a visual arts program that would help academic or emotionally at risk middle-school youth with their reading and writing. What transpired in Rollins’ classroom became history in the making. Rollins made learning personal and engaging by enabling student choice within a lesson so that learning history and literature had unique relevance to the students’ own experiences.

Rollins understood that by connecting newfound knowledge (from the books they were reading in school) to personal and significant daily encounters, students become thirsty for learning and are emboldened to ask or take on ‘big questions.’ In other words, they become life-long learners who aren’t afraid to take risks or make mistakes, because one of the major tenants we learn from art education is that there are no mistakes in art.

Rollins knew that his students were exceptional, and together they formed an art collective called Kids of Survival or K.O.S, through which they created major works of art that related text to visual imagery and interpreted literature within the lens of contemporary issues such as race, gender, and social justice. Putting Paulo Freire’s (1921-1997) teachings into practice, K.O.S. developed an educational model where the students, teacher, and society (in this case the art world and museum/gallery visitors) can learn collaboratively with each other. The learners became co-creators of knowledge.  For K.O.S, art was a means for survival and education was the material that was used to transcend the tough and seemingly hopeless environment that they grew up in.

Tim Rollins’ memory will be a blessing because his collaborators in K.O.S continue to tackle ‘big questions’ in their works of art and will no doubt inspire future generations of at risk youth to do so as well. All of our students have the potential to succeed. Art presents us with a blank canvas where we can combine the knowledge we learn (in other disciplines) with the personal lessons, trials, and tribulations we experience.

What we can learn from Tim Rollins (1955-2017)